"David Bowie" (; born "David Robert Jones" on 8 January 1947) is an English musician, actor, producer, and arranger. Active in five decades of rock music and frequently reinventing his music and image, Bowie is widely regarded as an innovator, particularly for his work in the 1970s. He has been cited as an influence by many musicians. Bowie is also known for his baritone vocal range.
Although he released an album and numerous singles earlier, David Bowie first caught the eye and ear of the public in the autumn of 1969, when his space-age mini-melodrama "Space Oddity" reached the top five of the UK singles chart. After a three-year period of experimentation he re-emerged in 1972 during the glam rock era as the flamboyant, androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust, spearheaded by the hit single "Starman" and the album "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars". The relatively short-lived Ziggy persona epitomised a career often marked by musical innovation, reinvention and striking visual presentation.
In 1975, Bowie achieved his first major American crossover success with the number-one single "Fame" and the hit album "Young Americans", which the singer identified as "plastic soul". The sound constituted a radical shift in style that initially alienated many of his UK devotees. He then confounded the expectations of both his record label and his American audiences by recording the minimalist album "Low" – the first of three collaborations with Brian Eno over the next two years. Arguably his most experimental works to date, the so-called "Berlin Trilogy" albums all reached the UK Top Five.
After uneven commercial success in the late 1970s, Bowie had UK number ones with the 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes" and its parent album, "Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps)". He paired with Queen
for the 1981 UK chart-topper "Under Pressure", but consolidated his commercial – and, until then, most profitable – sound in 1983 with the album "Let's Dance", which yielded the hit singles "Let's Dance", "China Girl", and "Modern Love".
In the BBC's 2002 poll of the 100 Greatest Britons, Bowie ranked 29. Throughout his career he has sold an estimated 136 million albums, and ranks among the ten best-selling acts in UK pop history. In 2004, "Rolling Stone" magazine ranked him 39th on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.
===1947 to 1967: Early years===
David Bowie (then Jones) was born in Brixton, London. His mother was Irish and his father was from Yorkshire. Bowie's parents were married shortly after his birth. When he was six years old, his family moved from Brixton to Bromley in Kent, where he attended Bromley Technical High School.
When Bowie was fifteen years old, his friend George Underwood, wearing a ring on his finger, punched him in the left eye during a fight over a girl. Bowie was forced to stay out of school for eight months so that doctors could conduct operations to repair his potentially-blinded eye. Doctors could not fully repair the damage, leaving his pupil permanently dilated. As a result of the injury, Bowie has faulty depth perception. Bowie has stated that although he can see with his injured eye, his colour vision was mostly lost and a brownish tone is constantly present. The colour of the irises is still the same blue, but since the pupil of the injured eye is wide open, the colour of that eye is commonly mistaken to be different. This soon morphed into the Beckenham Arts Lab and became extremely popular. In August 1969, The Arts Lab hosted a Free Festival in a local park, later immortalised by Bowie in his song "Memory of a Free Festival". In 1969 and 1970, "Space Oddity" was used by the BBC during both its Apollo 11 moon landing coverage and its coverage of Apollo 13
In 1970, Bowie released his third album, "The Man Who Sold the World", rejecting the acoustic guitar sound of the previous album and replacing it with the heavy rock backing provided by Mick Ronson, who would be a major collaborator through to 1973. Much of the album resembles British heavy metal music of the period, but the album provided some unusual musical detours, such as the title track's use of Latin sounds and rhythms. The original UK cover of the album showed Bowie in a dress, an early example of his androgynous appearance. In the U.S., the album was originally released in a cartoonish cover that did not feature Bowie.
His next record, "Hunky Dory" in 1971, saw the partial return of the fey pop singer of "Space Oddity", with light fare such as the droll "Kooks". Elsewhere, the album explored more serious themes on tracks such as "Oh! You Pretty Things" (a song taken to UK #12 by Herman's Hermits' Peter Noone in 1971), the semi-autobiographical "The Bewlay Brothers", and the Buddhist-influenced "Quicksand". Lyrically, the young songwriter also paid unusually direct homage to his influences with "Song for Bob Dylan", "Andy Warhol", and "Queen Bitch", which Bowie's somewhat cryptic liner notes indicate as a Velvet Underground pastiche. As with the single "Changes", "Hunky Dory" was not a big hit but it laid the groundwork for the move that would shortly lift Bowie into the first rank of stars, giving him four top-ten albums and eight top ten singles in the UK in eighteen months between 1972 and 1973.
Bowie's androgynous persona was further explored in June 1972 with the seminal concept album "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars", which presents a world destined to end in five years and tells the story of the ultimate rock star, Ziggy Stardust. The album's sound combined the hard rock elements of "The Man Who Sold the World" with the lighter experimental rock of "Hunky Dory" and the fast-paced glam rock pioneered by Marc Bolan's T.Rex. Many of the album's songs have become rock classics, including "Ziggy Stardust," "Moonage Daydream," "Hang on to Yourself," and "Suffragette City."
The Ziggy Stardust character became the basis for Bowie's first large-scale tour beginning in 1972, where he donned his famous flaming red hair and wild outfits. The tour featured a three-piece band representing the "Spiders from Mars": Ronson on guitar, Trevor Bolder on bass, and Mick Woodmansey on drums. The album made #5 in the UK on the strength of the #10 placing of the single "Starman". Their success made Bowie a star, and soon the six-month-old "Hunky Dory" eclipsed "Ziggy Stardust", when it peaked at #3 on the UK chart. At the same time the non-album single "John, I’m Only Dancing" (not released in the U.S. until 1979) peaked at UK #12, and "All the Young Dudes", a song he had given to, and produced for, Mott the Hoople, made UK #3.
Around the same time Bowie began promoting and producing his rock and roll heroes. Former Velvet Underground singer Lou Reed's solo breakthrough "Transformer" was produced by Bowie and Ronson. Iggy Pop and his band The Stooges signed with Bowie's management, MainMan Productions, and recorded their third album, "Raw Power", in London. Though he was not present for the tracking of the album, Bowie later performed its much-debated mix.
The Spiders From Mars came together again on "Aladdin Sane", released in April 1973 and his first #1 album in the UK. Described by Bowie as "Ziggy goes to America", all the new songs were written on ship, bus or trains during the first leg of his US "Ziggy Stardust" tour. The album's cover, featuring Bowie shirtless with Ziggy hair and a red, black, and blue lightning bolt across his face, has been labeled as "startling as rock covers ever got." "Aladdin Sane" included the UK #2 hit "The Jean Genie", the UK #3 hit "Drive-In Saturday", and a rendition of The Rolling Stones' "Let's Spend the Night Together". Mike Garson joined Bowie to play piano on this album, and his solo on the title track has been cited as one of the album's highlights. "Young Americans" was the album that cemented Bowie's stardom in the U.S.; though only peaking there at #9, as opposed to the #5 placing of "Diamond Dogs", the album stayed on the charts almost twice as long. At the same time, the album achieved #2 in the UK while a re-issue of his old single "Space Oddity" became his first #1 hit in the UK, only a few months after "Fame" had achieved the same in the US.
"Station to Station" (1976) featured a darker version of this soul persona, called "The Thin White Duke". Visually the figure was an extension of Thomas Jerome Newton, the character Bowie portrayed in "The Man Who Fell to Earth". "Station to Station" was a transitional album, prefiguring the Krautrock and synthesizer music of his next releases, while further developing the funk and soul music of "Young Americans". By this time, Bowie had become heavily dependent on drugs, particularly cocaine; many critics have attributed the chopped rhythms and emotional detachment of the record to the influence of the drug, to which Bowie claimed to have been introduced in America. His emotional disturbance and megalomania at this time reached such a fever pitch that Bowie refused to relinquish control of a satellite, booked for a worldwide broadcast of a live appearance preceding the release of "Station to Station", at the request of the Spanish Government, who wished to put out a live feed regarding the death of Spanish Dictator Francisco Franco. His sanity—by his own later admission—became twisted from cocaine: he overdosed several times during the year. Additionally, Bowie was withering physically after having lost an alarming amount of weight.
Nonetheless, there was another large tour, "The 1976 World Tour", which featured a starkly lit set and highlighted new songs such as the dramatic and lengthy title track, the ballads "Wild Is the Wind" and "Word on a Wing", and the funkier "TVC 15" and "Stay". The core band that coalesced around this album and tour—rhythm guitarist Alomar, bassist George Murray, and drummer Dennis Davis
—would remain a stable unit through the 1970s. The tour was highly successful but also entrenched in controversy, as the media claimed that Bowie was advocating fascism.
===1976 to 1980: The Berlin era===
Bowie's interest in the growing German music scene, as well as his drug addiction, prompted him to move to West Berlin to dry out and rejuvenate his career. Sharing an apartment in Schöneberg with his friend Iggy Pop, he co-produced three more of his own classic albums with Tony Visconti, while aiding Pop with his career. With Bowie as a co-writer and musician, Pop completed his first two solo albums, "The Idiot" and "Lust for Life". Bowie joined Pop's touring band in the spring, simply playing keyboard and singing backing vocals. The group performed in the UK, Europe, and the US from March to April 1977.
The brittle sound of "Station to Station" proved a precursor to "Low", the first of three albums that became known as the "Berlin Trilogy". "Low" was recorded with Brian Eno as an integral collaborator but, despite widespread belief, not the album's producer. Journalists often mistakenly give Eno production credits on the trilogy but, in fact, Bowie and Tony Visconti co-produced, with Eno co-writing some of the music, playing keyboards, and developing strategies. Bowie stressed in 2000: "Over the years not enough credit has gone to Tony Visconti on those particular albums. The actual sound and texture, the feel of everything from the drums to the way that my voice is recorded is Tony Visconti." Visconti said at the time, "Bowie wanted to make an album of music that was uncompromising and reflected the way he felt. He said he did not care whether or not he had another hit record, and that the recording would be so out of the ordinary that it might never get released".
Partly influenced by the Krautrock sound of Kraftwerk and Neu! and the minimalist work of Steve Reich, Bowie journeyed to Neunkirchen near Cologne to meet the famed German producer Conny Plank. Plank was considered a revolutionary producer in German rock in the era, but had no interest in working with Bowie and refused him entry to the studio. Bowie and his team persevered, however, and recorded new songs that were relatively simple, repetitive and stripped-down, a perverse reaction to punk rock, with the second side almost wholly instrumental. (By way of tribute, proto-punk Nick Lowe recorded an EP entitled "Bowi".) The album provided him with a surprise #3 hit in the UK when the BBC picked up the first single, "Sound and Vision", as its 'coming attractions' theme music. "Low" is renowned for being far ahead of its time, and Bowie himself has said "cut me and I bleed Low". The album was produced in 1976 and released in early 1977.
The "Low" sessions also formalised Bowie's three-phase approach to making albums. Much of the band were present for the first five days only, after which Eno, Alomar and Gardiner remained to play overdubs. By the time Bowie wrote and recorded the lyrics everybody but Visconti and studio engineers had departed. The next record, Heroes, was similar in sound to "Low", though slightly more accessible. The mood of these records fit the zeitgeist of the Cold War, symbolised by the divided city that provided its inspiration. The title track, a story of two lovers who met at the Berlin Wall, is one of Bowie's most-covered songs.
Also in 1977, Bowie appeared on the Granada music show "Marc", hosted by his friend and fellow glam pioneer Marc Bolan of T.Rex, with whom he had regularly socialised and jammed before either achieved fame. He turned out to be the show's final guest, as Bolan was killed in a car crash shortly afterward. Bowie was one of many superstars who attended the funeral.
For Christmas 1977, Bowie joined Bing Crosby, of whom he was an ardent admirer, at the ATV Television Studio in Herts England to do "Peace on Earth/Little Drummer Boy", a version of "Little Drummer Boy" with a new lyric. The resultant video in a Christmas seasonal setting was actually recorded during a late summer heatwave with the air conditioning breaking down. The two singers had originally met on Crosby's Christmas television special two years earlier (on the recommendation of Crosby's children — he had not heard of Bowie) and performed the song. One month after the record was completed, Crosby died. Five years later, the song would prove a worldwide festive hit, charting in the UK at #3 on Christmas Day 1982. Bowie later remarked jokingly that he was afraid of being a guest artist, because "everyone I was going on with was kicking it", referring to Bolan and Crosby.
Bowie and his band embarked on an extensive world tour in 1978 (including his first concerts in Australia and New Zealand) which featured music from both "Low" and "Heroes". A live album from the tour was released as "Stage" the same year. Songs from both "Low" and "Heroes" were later converted to symphonies by minimalist composer Phillip Glass. 1978 was also the year that saw Bowie narrating Sergei Prokofiev's "Peter and the Wolf".
1979's "Lodger" was the final album in Bowie's so-called "Berlin Trilogy", or "triptych" as Bowie calls it. It featured the singles "Boys Keep Swinging", "DJ" and "Look Back in Anger" and, unlike the two previous LPs, did not contain any instrumentals. The style was a mix of New Wave and world music, which included pieces such as "African Night Flight" and "Yassassin". A number of tracks were composed using the non-traditional Bowie/Eno composition techniques: "Boys Keep Swinging" was developed with the band members swapping their instruments while "Move On" contains the chords for an early Bowie composition, "All The Young Dudes", played backwards. This was Bowie's last album with Eno until "1. Outside" in 1995.
In 1980, Bowie did an about-face, integrating the lessons learnt on "Low", "Heroes", and "Lodger" while expanding upon them with chart success. "Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps)" included the #1 hit "Ashes to Ashes", featuring the textural work of guitar-synthesist Chuck Hammer
, and revisiting the character of Major Tom from "Space Oddity". The imagery Bowie used in the song's music video gave international exposure to the underground New Romantic movement and, with many of the followers of this phase being devotees, Bowie visited the London club "Blitz" — the main New Romantic hangout — to recruit several of the regulars (including Steve Strange of the band Visage) to act in the video, renowned as being one of the most innovative of all time.
While "Scary Monsters" utilised principles that Bowie had learned in the Berlin era, it was considered by critics to be far more direct musically and lyrically, reflecting the transformation Bowie had gone through during his time in Germany and Europe. By 1980 Bowie had divorced his wife Angie, curbed the drug abuse of the "Thin White Duke" era, and radically changed his concept of the way music should be written. The album had a hard rock edge that included conspicuous guitar contributions from King Crimson's Robert Fripp, The Who's Pete Townshend, and Television
's Tom Verlaine.
Bowie decided to tour again in 1987, supporting the "Never Let Me Down" album. The Glass Spider Tour was preceded by nine promotional press shows before the 86-concert tour actually started on 30 May 1987. In addition to the actual band, that included Peter Frampton on lead guitar, five dancers appeared on stage for almost the entire duration of each concert. Taped pieces of dialogue were also performed by Bowie and the dancers in the middle of songs, creating an overtly theatrical effect. Several visual gimmicks were also recreated from Bowie's earlier tours. Critics of the tour described it as overproduced and claimed it pandered to then-current stadium rock trends in its special effects and dancing. However, fans that saw the shows from the Glass Spider Tour were treated to many of Bowie's classics and rarities, in addition to the newer material.
In August 1988, Bowie portrayed Pontius Pilate in the Martin Scorsese film "The Last Temptation of Christ". Trent Reznor also contributed a remix of the "Outside" song "The Hearts Filthy Lesson" for its single release. On 17 January 1996, Bowie was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at the eleventh annual induction ceremony.
Receiving some of the strongest critical response since "Let's Dance" was "Earthling" (1997), which incorporated experiments in British jungle and drum 'n' bass and included a single released over the Internet, called "Telling Lies"; other singles included "Little Wonder" and "Dead Man Walking". There was a corresponding world tour, which was fairly successful. Bowie's track in the Paul Verhoeven film "Showgirls", "I'm Afraid of Americans" was remixed by Trent Reznor for a single release. The video's heavy rotation (also featuring Reznor) contributed to the song's 16-week stay in the US Billboard Hot 100.
In October 2004, Bowie released a live DVD of the tour, entitled "A Reality Tour" of his performances in Dublin on 22 November and 23 November 2003, which included songs spanning the full length of Bowie's career, although mostly focusing on his more recent albums.
Still recuperating from his operation, Bowie worked off-stage and relaxed from studio work for the first time in several years. In 2004, a duet of his classic song "Changes" with Butterfly Boucher
appeared in "Shrek 2". The soundtrack for the film "The Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou" featured David Bowie songs performed in Portuguese by cast member Seu Jorge
(who adapted the lyrics to make them relevant to the film's story). Most of the David Bowie songs featured in the film were originally from "David Bowie" (debut album), "Space Oddity", "Hunky Dory", "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars" and "Diamond Dogs". Bowie commented, "Had Seu Jorge not recorded my songs acoustically in Portuguese I would never have heard this new level of beauty which he has imbued them with".
Despite hopes for a comeback, in 2005, Bowie announced that he had made no plans for any performances during the year. After a relatively quiet year, Bowie recorded the vocals for the song "(She Can) Do That", co-written by Brian Transeau, for the movie "Stealth". Rumours flew about the possibility of a new album, but no announcements were made. In April 2005, film writer and director Darren Aronofsky revealed Bowie was working on a rock opera adaptation of the comic book "Watchmen".
David Bowie finally returned to the stage on 8 September 2005, alongside Arcade Fire, for the US nationally televised event Fashion Rocks, his first gig since the heart attack. Bowie has shown interest in the Montreal band since he was seen at one of their shows in New York City nearly a year earlier. Bowie had requested the band to perform at the show, and together they performed the Arcade Fire's song "Wake Up" from their album "Funeral", as well as Bowie's own "Five Years" and "Life on Mars?". He joined them again on 15 September 2005, singing "Queen Bitch" and "Wake Up" from Central Park's Summerstage as part of the CMJ Music Marathon.
Bowie contributed back-up vocals for TV on the Radio's song "Province" from their album "Return to Cookie Mountain". He made other occasional appearances, as in his commercial with Snoop Dogg for XM Satellite Radio. He appeared on Danish alt-rockers Kashmir
2005 release, "No Balance Palace", which was produced by Tony Visconti. The album also featured a spoken word performance by Lou Reed, making it the second project involving both Bowie and Reed in two years, since Reed's 2003 "The Raven".
On 8 February 2006, David Bowie was awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. In November, Bowie performed at the Black Ball in New York for the Keep a Child Alive Foundation alongside his wife, Iman, and Alicia Keys. He duetted with Keys on "Changes", and also performed "Wild is the Wind" and "Fantastic Voyage".
For 2006, Bowie once again announced a break from performance, but he made a surprise guest appearance at David Gilmour's 29 May 2006 concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London. He sang "Arnold Layne" and "Comfortably Numb", closing the concert. The former performance was released, on 26 December 2006, as a single.
In May 2007, it was announced that Bowie would curate the High Line Festival in the abandoned railway park in New York called the High Line where he would select various musicians and artists to perform.
Bowie contributed backing vocals to two tracks - "Falling Down" and "Fannin' Street" - on Scarlett Johansson's 2008 album of Tom Waits covers, "Anywhere I Lay My Head".
On 29 June 2008, Bowie released a new compilation entitled "iSELECT". This CD was a collection of personal favourites compiled by Bowie himself and was available exclusively as a free gift with the British newspaper "The Mail On Sunday". The compilation is notable in that it only contained one major hit single, "Life on Mars?", and concentrated on lesser-known album tracks.
Bowie's first major film role in "The Man Who Fell to Earth" in 1976, earned acclaim. Bowie's character Thomas Jerome Newton is an alien from a planet that is dying from a lack of water. In 1979's "Just a Gigolo", an Anglo-German co-production directed by David Hemmings
, Bowie played the lead role of a Prussian officer Paul von Pryzgodski returning from World War I who is discovered by a Baroness (Marlene Dietrich) and put into her Gigolo Stable.
In the 1980s, Bowie continued with film roles and also starred in the Broadway production of "The Elephant Man" (1980-1981). In 1982, he made a cameo appearance as himself in "Christiane F.", focusing on a young girl's drug addiction. Bowie also starred in "The Hunger" (1983), a revisionist vampire movie with Catherine Deneuve and Susan Sarandon. In the film, Bowie and Deneuve are vampire lovers, with her having made him a vampire centuries ago. While she is truly ageless, he discovers to his horror that although immortal, he can still age and rapidly becomes a pathetic, monstrous husk as the film progresses. In Nagisa Oshima's film "Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence" (1983), based on Laurens van der Post's novel "The Seed and the Sower", Bowie played Major Jack Celliers, a prisoner of war in a Japanese internment camp. Another famous musician, Ryuichi Sakamoto, played the camp commandant who begins to be undermined by Celliers' bizarre behavior. Bowie had a cameo as The Shark in "Yellowbeard", a 1983 pirate comedy made by some of the members of Monty Python, and a small part as Colin the hit man in the 1985 film "Into the Night". During this time Bowie was also asked to play the villain Max Zorin in the James Bond film "A View to a Kill" (1985), but turned down the role, stating that "I didn't want to spend five months watching my stunt double fall off mountains."
"Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence" impressed some critics. His next major film project, the rock musical "Absolute Beginners" (1986), was both a critical and box office disappointment. The same year he appeared in the Jim Henson cult classic, the dark fantasy "Labyrinth" (1986), playing Jareth, the king of the goblins. Jareth is a powerful, mysterious creature who has an antagonistic yet strangely flirtatious relationship with Sarah (Jennifer Connelly), the film's teenage heroine. Appearing in heavy make-up and a mane-like wig, Bowie sang a variety of new songs specially composed for the film's soundtrack. Bowie also played a sympathetic Pontius Pilate in Martin Scorsese's "The Last Temptation of Christ" (1988). He was briefly considered for the role of The Joker by Tim Burton and Sam Hamm for 1989's "Batman". Hamm recalls "David Bowie would be kind of neat because he's very funny when he does sinister roles". The role ended up going to Jack Nicholson.
Bowie portrayed a disgruntled restaurant employee opposite Rosanna Arquette in the 1991 film "The Linguini Incident", and played mysterious FBI agent Phillip Jeffries in David Lynch's "Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me" (1992). He took the small but pivotal role of Andy Warhol in "Basquiat", artist/director Julian Schnabel's 1996 biopic of the artist Jean-Michel Basquiat. In 1998 Bowie also co-starred in an Italian film called "Gunslinger's Revenge" (renamed from the original "Il Mio West"). However, it was not released in the United States until 2005. In it he plays the most feared gunslinger in the region.
Before appearing in "The Hunger", a TV horror serial based on the 1983 movie, Bowie was invited by musician Goldie
to play the aging gangster Bernie in Andrew Goth's "Brighton Rock" inspired movie, "Everybody Loves Sunshine". He played the title role in the 2000 film, "Mr. Rice's Secret", in which he played the neighbour of a terminally ill twelve year old. In 2001, Bowie appeared as himself in the film "Zoolander", volunteering himself to be a walkoff judge between Ben Stiller's character Zoolander, and Owen Wilson's character, Hansel.
In 2006, Bowie portrayed Nikola Tesla alongside Christian Bale and Hugh Jackman
in "The Prestige", directed by Christopher Nolan
. It follows the bitter competition between two magicians around the turn of the century. Bowie has voice-acted in the animated movie "Arthur and the Minimoys" (known as "Arthur and the Invisibles" in the U.S.) as the powerful villain Maltazard. He also appeared as himself in an episode of "Extras". Bowie (in the context of the show) improvised and sang a song mocking the main character Andy Millman, played by Ricky Gervais. He also lent his voice to the character "Lord Royal Highness" in the "SpongeBob SquarePants" episode "SpongeBob's Atlantis SquarePantis". His latest project is a supporting role as Ogilvie in the new film, "August", directed by Austin Chick (best known for writing and directing the 2002 romantic drama "XX/XY"), and starring Josh Hartnett and Rip Torn (with whom he also worked on "The Man Who Fell to Earth").
Bowie met his first wife Angela Bowie in 1969. According to Bowie, they were "fucking the same bloke" (record executive Calvin Mark Lee). Angie's sense of fashion and outrage has been credited as a significant influence in Bowie's early career and rise to fame. They married on 19 March 1970 at Bromley Register Office in Beckenham Lane, Kent, England where she permanently took his adopted last name. Their son was born on 30 May 1971 and named Zowie (Zowie later preferred to be known as Joe/Joey, although now he has reverted to his legal birth name - "Duncan Zowie Haywood Jones"). They separated after eight years of marriage and divorced on 8 February 1980, in Switzerland. The marriage has been cited as one of convenience for both. name="Strange Fascination pp.92-93"/>
Bowie married his second wife, the Somali-born supermodel Iman Abdulmajid, in 1992. The couple have a daughter, Alexandria Zahra Jones (known as Lexi), born 15 August 2000, and live in Manhattan and London.
Bowie outed himself in an interview with "Melody Maker" in January 1972, a move coinciding with the first shots in his campaign for stardom as Ziggy Stardust. name="Bowie: An Illustrated Record p.7"/> In a 1976 interview with "Playboy", Bowie said: "It's true - I am a bisexual. But I can't deny that I've used that fact very well. I suppose it's the best thing that ever happened to me." He distanced himself from that in a 1983 interview with "Rolling Stone", saying his earlier declaration of bisexuality was "the biggest mistake I ever made".
In 1993, he made the claim that he had always been a "closet heterosexual", and that his interest in homosexual and bisexual culture was more a product of the times and situation than his own feelings. Bowie stated, "It wasn't something I was comfortable with at all."
Bowie expressed a different view in a 2002 interview with "Blender"; where he was posed with this question: You once said that saying you were bisexual was “the biggest mistake I ever made.” Do you still believe that? His response:
Interesting. I don’t think it was a mistake in Europe, but it was a lot tougher in America. I had no problem with people knowing I was bisexual. But I had no inclination to hold any banners or be a representative of any group of people. I knew what I wanted to be, which was a songwriter and a performer, and I felt that became my headline over here for so long. America is a very puritanical place, and I think it stood in the way of so much I wanted to do.
In September 2007, he made a contribution of U.S.$10,000 to the NAACP for the Jena Six Legal Defense Fund to help with legal bills of six teenagers arrested and charged with crimes related to their involvement in the assault of a teenager in Jena.
* "David Bowie" (1967)
* "Space Oddity" (1969)
* "The Man Who Sold the World" (1970)
* "Hunky Dory" (1971)
* "The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars" (1972)
* "Aladdin Sane" (1973)
* "Pin Ups" (1973)
* "Diamond Dogs" (1974)
* "Young Americans" (1975)
* "Station to Station" (1976)
* "Low" (1977)
* Heroes (1977)
* "Lodger" (1979)
* "Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps)" (1980)
* "Let's Dance" (1983)
* "Tonight" (1984)
* "Never Let Me Down" (1987)
* "Black Tie, White Noise" (1993)
* "Outside" (1995)
* "Earthling" (1997)
* "'hours...'" (1999)
* "Heathen" (2002)
* "Reality" (2003)
Bowie has previously declined the British honour Commander of the British Empire in 2000, and a knighthood in 2003.
*Best selling music artists - World's top selling music artists chart.
*List of number-one hits (United States)
*List of artists who reached number one on the Hot 100 (U.S.)
*List of Number 1 Dance Hits (United States)
*List of artists who reached number one on the U.S. Dance chart
*List of people who have declined a British honour
*100 Greatest Britons
*Low Symphony and Heroes Symphony
== Notes ==
Referenced from Wikipedia: David Bowie